Abrasion Resistance. Resistance to frictional rubbing as distinct from resistance to knocks and impacts. Abrasion tests may be made by means of the finger alone, or with a cloth or a pad with or without a mildly abrasive powder. The pressure, speed and time of rubbing as well as the character of the rubbing agent should be controlled when making comparisons of abrasion resistance.

ABS. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, a thermoplastic. Hs good impact resistance and a surface that is easily decorated.

Absolute White. In theory, a material that perfectly reflects all light energy at every visible wavelength. In practice, a solid white with known spectral data used as the "reference white" for all measurements of absolute reflectance.

Acetate. Thin, flexible sheet of transparent plastic used to make overlays.

Against the grain. At right angles to the grain direction of paper.

Agent. Alternate term for Artist's representative.

Airbrush. Pen-shaped ink sprayer used to retouch photographic prints and create illustrations.

Alley.Space between columns of type on a page.

Alteration. Change in copy or specifications made after production has begun.

Amberlith. Another trade name for orange masking material.

Artboard.Alternate term for Mechanical.

Artist's representative. Person who handles marketing and other business matters for designers, illustrators, and photographers.

Artwork.Images, including type and photos, prepared for printing.

ASCII.Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange, a standard code used to help interface digital equipment.

Backbone. Alternate term for Spine.

Back up.To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. Such printing is called a backup.

Banding.Method of packaging printed pieces using paper, rubber, or fiberglass bands.

Base negative. Negative made from copy pasted to mounting board, not overlays.

Basic size. The one standard size of each grade of paper used to calculate basis weight.

Basis weight. Weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to the basic size for its grade.

Baud rate. Number of bits of information transmitted per second from one digital device to another.

Benday. Alternate term for Screen tint.

Bind. To fasten sheets or signatures and adhere covers with glue, wire, thread, or by other means.

Binder's board. Very stiff paper board used to make covers of case bound books.

Bindery. Print shop department or separate business that does trimming, folding, binding, and other finishing tasks.

Black Printer The plate during the prepress printing process that is used with the cyan, magenta and yellow printers to enhance the contrast and to emphasize the neutral tones and detail in the final reproduction shadow areas.

Blanket.Thick rubber sheet that transfers ink from plate to paper on an offset press.

Blanket cylinder.Cylinder of a press on which the blanket is mounted.

Bleed. Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.

Blind emboss.To emboss without added ink or foil the embossed image.

Blow up. To enlarge photographically. Such an enlargement is called a blowup.

Blueline. Prepress, photographic proof where all colors show as blue image on white paper.

Board. Alternate term for Mechanical.

Board paper.Grade of paper commonly used for file folders, display, and post cards.

Bond paper. Grade of paper commonly used for writing, printing, and photocopying.

Bookbinder. Alternate term for Trade bindery.

Book paper. Grade of paper suitable for books, magazines, and general printing needs.

Brightness. Characteristic of paper referring to how much light it reflects.

Bristol. Type of board paper used for post cards, business cards, and other heavy-use products.

Broken carton. Less than one full carton of paper.

Broker. Agent who supplies printing from many printing companies.

Bulk.Thickness of paper, expressed in thousandths of an inch or pages per inch (ppi).

Bulk pack. To pack printed pieces in boxes without prior wrapping in bundles.

Burn.In photography, to give extra exposure to a specific area of a print. In lithography, to expose a blueline proof or printing plate with light.

Burnisb. To smooth and seal by rubbing elements. adhered to a mechanical.

Burst perfect bind. To bind by forcing glue into notches in spines of signatures, and then adhering a paper cover.

Butt. To join without overlapping or space between.

Butt fit. Ink colors overlapped only a hairline so they appear perfectly butted.

Buyout. Subcontracted service.

C1S. Paper coated on one side.

C2S. Paper coated on both sides.

Calender. To make paper smooth and glossy by passing it between rollers during manufacturing.

Caliper. Thickness of paper, expressed in thousandths of an inch.

Camera-ready copy. Mechanicals, photographs, and art fully prepared to be photographed for platemaking according to the technical requirements of either quick or commercial printing.

Camera service. Business using a process camera to make PMTS, halftone negatives, printing plates, etc.

Cardboard. General term for stiff, bulky paper such as index, tag, or bristol.

Carload. Usually 40,000 pounds of paper.

Case bind.To bind by gluing signatures to a case made of binder's board covered with fabric, plastic, or leather, yielding hard cover books.

Cast coated. Coated paper with a surface similar to that of a glossy photograph.

Center marks. Lines on a mechanical, negative, plate, or press sheet indicating the center of a layout.

CEPS Abbreviation for color electronic prepress systems, a high-end, computer-based system that is used to color correct scanned images and assemble image elements into final pages.

Chipboard. Inexpensive, single-ply cardboard, usually brown or gray.

Chrome. Alternate term for Transparency.

Cleat bind. Alternate term for Side stitch.

Clip art. High-contrast drawings printed on white, glossy paper and made to be cut out and pasted to a mechanical.

CMYK Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and black process colors or inks.

Coarse screen. Screen with ruling of less than 133 lines per inch.

Coated paper. Paper with a coating of clay that improves ink holdout.

Collate.To assemble sheets into proper sequence.

Collateral. Ad agency term for printed pieces, such as brochures and annual reports, that are not directly involved in advertising.

Collotype. Method of printing continuous tones using a plate coated with gelatin.

Color bar. Strip of colors printed near the edge of a press sheet to help evaluate ink density.

Color break.In multicolor printing, the point or line at which one ink color stops and another begins.

Color Control Bars A film test printed or exposed onto a film or substrate to produce an assortment of measurable color and gray patches that are used to measure and control the printing process.

Color correct. To retouch or enhance color separation negatives.

Color Key. 3M trade name for overlay color proof.

Color matching system. System of numbered ink swatches that facilitates communication about color.

Color process. Alternate term for 4-color process printing.

Color separation. Set of four halftone negatives for making plates for 4-color process printing.

Color separation service.Business making separation negatives for 4-color process printing.

Color swatch.Sample of an ink color.

Comb bind.To bind by inserting teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes in a stack of paper.

Commercial artist.Artist whose work is planned for reproduction by printing.

Commercial Register Color printing in which misregister allowable is within + or one row of dots.

Comp.Short for Comprehensive dummy.

Composite film.Graphic arts negative made by combining two or more images.

Composite proof.Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type.

Comprehensive dummy.A detailed dummy or sketch of a design, intended to give a client or the printer a clear sense of how the finished publication will or should look when reproduced. Desktop publishing systems can easily create comps using low-resolution black and white or color printers. Every job submitted for printing must be accompanied with a color-broken comprehensive clearly indicating color breaks.

Consignment memo.Alternate term for photographer's Delivery memo.

Contact print.Photographic print made by exposing a negative in direct uniform contact with paper.

Contact sheet. Alternate term for Proof sheet.

Continuous-tone copy.All photographs and those illustrations having a range of shades.

Contract Proof A color proof that represents an agreement between the printer and the client regarding exactly how the printed product will appear.

Contrast. Range of gradations in tones between lightest white and darkest black in continuous-tone copy or the abrupt change between light and dark in line copy.

Converter. Business that combines printed sheets with other materials to make boxes, displays, etc.

Copy. For an editor or typesetter, all written material. For a graphic designer or printer, everything that will be printed: art, photographs, and graphics as well as words.

Copyboard.Part of a process camera that holds copy in position to be photographed.

Copy preparation. In typesetting, marking up manuscript and specifying type. In pasteup and printing, making mechanicals and writing instructions to ensure proper placement and handling of copy.

Copyright. Ownership of creative work by the writer, photographer, or artist who made it.

Copywriter. Person who writes copy for advertising.

Corner marks. Lines on a mechanical, negative, plate, or press sheet showing the corners of a page or finished piece.

Corrugated. Characteristic of board for boxes made by sandwiching fluted kraft paper between sheets of paper or cardboard.

Cotton content paper.Paper made from cotton fibers rather than wood pulp.

Cover paper.Grade of paper made for covers and post cards.

C print. Color photographic print made from a negative on Kodak C Print paper.

Crash printing.Letterpress printing on carbon or carbonless forms so image prints simultaneously on all sheets in the set.

Creep. Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages.

Cromalin. DuPont trade name for integral color proof.

Crop. To eliminate portions of an illustration or photograph so the remainder is more clear, interesting, or able to fit the layout.

Crop marks. Lines near the edges of an image showing portions to be eliminated

Crossover. Image that continues from one page of a publication across the gutter to the opposite page.

Cutoff.The circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore also the length of the sheet the press will cut from the roll of paper.

Cut stock.Paper distributor term for paper 11 x 17 or smaller.

CWT. Paper distributor abbreviation for 100 pounds.

Cyan. one of the four process colors; also known as process blue.

Dampener fountain. Alternate term for Water fountain on a press.

Dampening solution. Alternate term for Fountain solution.

Data conversion. To change digital information from its original code so that it can be recorded by an electronic memory using a different code.

Deboss. To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface.

Deckle edge.Feathered edge on specially-made sheets of text and cover paper.

Delivery memo.Form sent by photographers and stock photo services to clients for signature to verify receipt of photos and agreement to contract terms.

Densitometer. Instrument used to measure light reflecting from or transmitted through copy.

Density.Relative darkness of copy, ink on paper, or emulsion on film, as measured by a densitometer.

Density range. Expression of contrast between darkest and lightest areas of copy.

Depth of field. Photographer term for relative sharpness of features in an image regardless of their distance from the camera when photographed.

Design brief. Written description of how a printed piece is intended to look and the requirements for reproducing it.

Diazo. Light-sensitive coating on paper or film for making contact prints of technical drawings.

Die.Sharp metal rule used for die cutting or block of metal used for embossing or foil stamping.

Die cutting. Cutting irregular shapes in paper using metal rules mounted on a letter press.

Dimensional stability.Ability of paper and other substrates to retain their exact size despite the influence of temperature, moisture, or stretching.

Direct mail.Mail designed to motivate readers to respond directly to senders with a purchase, donation, or other action.

Doctor blade. Flexible metal strip that cleans excess ink from a gravure plate prior to each impression.

Dodge.To block light from selected areas while making a photographic print.

Dot etching.Chemical or photographic method of color correcting separation negatives.

Dot gain or spread.Phenomenon of dots printing larger on paper than they are on negatives or plates.

Double bump.To print a single image twice so it has two layers of ink.

Double bum. To expose a plate or proof to two negatives to create a composite image.

Draw down. Sample of specified ink and paper, used to evaluate color.

Drill. To bore holes in paper so sheets fit over posts of loose-leaf binders.

Drop out.To eliminate halftone dots or fine lines due to overexposure during camera work or platemaking. The lost copy is said to have dropped out.

Dropout halftone. Halftone in which the highlight areas contain no dots.

Dry gum paper. Label paper with glue that can be activated by water.

Dull finish. Characteristic of paper that reflects relatively little light.

Dull ink or varnish.Alternate term for Matte ink or varnish.

Dummy. Preliminary drawing or layout showing visual elements. Also a simulation of a printed piece using paper specified for a job.

Duotone. Photograph reproduced from two halftone negatives and usually printed in two ink colors.

Duplex paper. Paper with a different color or finish on each side.

Duplicator. Small offset press using paper 12 x 18 or smaller (not to be confused with spirit duplicator).

Dylux.DuPont trade name for photographic paper used to make blueline proofs.

Edition bind.Alternate term for Case bind.

Electronic image assembly. Assembly of new image from portions of existing images or elements using a computer.

Electronic memory. Disk, magnetic tape, or other memory device that holds digital information.

Electronic page assembly.Assembly and manipulation of type, graphics, and other visual elements on a computer screen.

Electronic publishing, Publishing by printing with a computer-controlled photocopy machine.

Electronic retouching.Using a computer to enhance or correct a scanned photograph.

Emboss.To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface.

Emulsion. Coating of chemicals on papers, films, and printing plates that, prior to development, is sensitive to light.

Enamel paper.Alternate term for Coated paper with gloss finish.

End sheets. Sheets that attach the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover.

Engraver. Person who makes a plate for engraving. Also may refer to trade camera service.

Engraving. Method of printing using a plate, also called a die, with an image carved into it.

Estimate. Price that states what a job will probably cost based on initial specifications from customer.

Etch. Using chemicals or tools, to carve away metal leaving an image or carve an image into metal. Also, alternate term for Fountain solution.

Exposure time. Time required for light to record an image while striking light-sensitive emulsion.

Fake duotone.Halftone in one ink color printed over screen tint of a second ink color.

Fast film.Film that requires relatively little light to record an image.

Film coat. Paper with a very thin coating.

Film laminate. Thin sheet of plastic adhered to printed paper for protection.

Filter.Colored glass or gelatin used to reduce or eliminate specific colors from light before it strikes film or paper.

Final count.Number of printed pieces delivered and charged for.

Fine screen. Screen with ruling of more than 150 lines per inch.

Finish. Surface characteristic of paper.

Finishing. Inclusive term sometimes used for all bindery operations.

Finish size.Size of printed product after production is complete.

Fixer.Chemical that prevents deterioration of images on photosensitive paper.

Flat. in photography, characteristic of an image that lacks contrast. In printing, an assembly of negatives taped to masking material and ready for platemaking.

Flexography. Method of printing on a web press using rubber plates with raised images.

Flood.To cover a sheet with ink or varnish.

Flop.To reproduce a photograph or illustration so that its image faces opposite from the original.

Flush cover. Cover that is trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as with paperback books.

Flute. Paper pleat between the walls in corrugated cardboard.

Foil emboss. To foil stamp and emboss an image.

Foil stamping. Method of printing on a letter press using thin metallic or pigmented film and a die.

Form. One side of a press sheet.

Format. Size, shape, and overall style of a layout or printed piece.

Formula pricing.Printing prices based on standard papers, formats, ink colors, and quantities.

Fountain. Reservoir for ink or water on a press.

Fountain solution.Mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent ink from adhering to its non-image area.

4-color process.Technique of printing that uses the four process colors of ink to simulate color photographs or illustrations.

Free sheet. Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities.

French fold.Two folds at right angles to each other.

Fully saturated.Photographer term for rich color.

Gang.To reproduce two or more printed pieces or multiple copies of the same piece simultaneously on one sheet of paper. Also, to halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure.

Gather. To assemble signatures into the proper sequence for binding.

GBC binding- General Binding Corporation trade name for plastic comb binding.

Generation.A first generation image is the original; second generation is made from the original; third generation is made from the second generation. Print on this page is fourth generation: type (first), negative (second), plate (third), print (fourth).

Ghost halftone. Halftone that has been screened to produce a very faint image.

Ghosting. Phenomenon of a faint image on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear.

Gloss. Characteristic of paper, ink, or varnish that reflects relatively large amounts of light.

Glossy. Photographic print made on glossy paper.

Goldenrod.Alternate term for Flat.

Grade. One of seven major categories of paper: bond, uncoated book, coated book, text, cover, board, and specialty.

Grain.In paper, the direction in which fibers are aligned. in photography, crystals that make up emulsion on film.

Grain long or grain short.Paper whose fibers parallel the long or short dimension of the sheet.

Graphic arts.The crafts, industries, and professions related to designing and printing messages.

Graphic arts film.Film whose emulsion responds to light on an all-or-nothing principle to yield high contrast images.

Graphic arts magnifier.Lens, mounted in a small stand, used to inspect copy, negatives, and printing.

Graphic designer.Professional who conceives of the design for, plans how to produce, and may coordinate production of a printed piece.

Graphics. Art and other visual elements used to make messages more clear.

Gravure. Method of printing using etched metal cylinders, usually on web presses.

Gray scale. Strip of swatches of tone values ranging from white to black used by process camera operators to calibrate exposure times.

Gripper edge.Edge of a sheet held by the grippers, thus going first through a sheetfed press.

Groundwood paper. Newsprint and other inexpensive papers made from pulp created by grinding wood mechanically.

Gusset. Expandable portion of a bag, file folder, or envelope.

Gutter. Space between columns of type where pages meet at the binding.

Hairline. Very thin line or gap about the width of a hair: 1/100 inch.

Halftone. To photograph continuous-tones through a screen to convert the image into dots. The result is also called a halftone and may be either positive or negative and on film or paper.

Halftone dots. Dots that by their varying sizes create the illusion of shading or a continuous-tone image.

Halftone screen. Piece of film containing a grid of lines that breaks light into dots as it passes through.

Half web. Web press whose width and cutoff allow printing eight 8 1/2 x 11 pages on one press sheet.

Hard bind. Alternate term for Case bind.

Hard cover. Bound with a case of binder's board.

Head stops. Adjustable posts on register unit of a press that properly position leading edge of a sheet.

Heat-set web. Web press equipped with oven to make ink dry faster, thus able to print coated paper.

Hickey. Donut-shaped spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage.

High-bulk paper. Paper made relatively thick in proportion to its basis weight.

High contrast. Few or no tonal gradations between dark and light areas.

Highlights. The lightest areas in a photograph or halftone.

Holding fee. Charge made to clients who keep photograph longer than agreed to.

Holdout. Alternate term for Ink holdout.

House sheet. General-use paper ordered in large quantities and kept in stock by a printer.

Hypo. Alternate term for Fixer.

Image area. Portion of a negative or plate corresponding to inking on paper; portion of paper on which ink appears.

Image assembly. Alternate term for Stripping.

Imposition. Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.

Impression. One pressing of paper against type, plate, blanket, or die to transfer an image.

Impression cylinder. Cylinder on a press that presses paper against the blanket (offset) or plate (gravure).

Imprint. To print additional copy on a previously printed sheet.

Index paper. Light weight board paper for writing and easy erasure.

Indicia. Postal permit information printed on objects to be mailed and accepted by USPS in lieu of stamps.

Ink fountain. Reservoir on a printing press that holds ink.

Ink holdout. Characteristic of paper allowing ink to dry on its surface rather than by absorption.

Ink jet. Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles.

In-plant printer. Department of an agency, business, or association that does printing for the parent organization.

Integral proof. Color proof of separation negatives exposed in register on one piece of proofing paper.

Interface. To link two or more electronic devices so they can function as one unit.

Internegative. Negative made from a transparency for the purpose of making photographic prints.

IR coating. Liquid laminate coating bonded and cured with infrared light.

ISBN.International Standard Book Number assigned by the book's publisher using a system administered by the R. R. Bowker Company in New York City.

ISSN. International Standard Serial Number assigned by the Library of Congress in Washington DC to magazines, newsletters, and other serials requesting it.

Job shop. Commercial printing company.

Job ticket. Alternate term for Work order.

Jog. To straighten or align sheets of paper in a stack.

Key.To code separate pieces of copy to a layout or mechanical using a system of numbers or letters.

Keyline. Alternate term for Mechanical.

Keylines. Lines on a mechanical or negative showing the exact size, shape, and location of photographs or other graphic elements.

Keys. Screws on an ink fountain that control ink flow.

Kill fee. Charge made by writers and photographers for work done on assignment, then not used.

Kiss die cut. To die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer, of self-adhesive paper.

Knock out. Alternate term for Mask out.

Knockout film.Alternate term for Masking material such as Rubylith.

Kraft paper. Strong paper, usually brown, used for wrapping and to make bags.

Kromekote.Champion Paper Company trade name for a high-gloss, cast-coated paper.

Laid finish. Grid of parallel lines on paper simulating surface of handmade paper.

Laminate. To bond plastic film to paper, or to glue paper to chipboard or corrugated cardboard.

Large-format camera.Camera that makes negatives 4 x 5 or larger.

Laser printing.Method of photocopying using a laser beam to charge the drum.

Layout. Sketch or drawing of a design for a proposed printed piece showing position, size, and color of copy.

Leading edge. Edge of a sheet of paper that enters the press first, also known as the Gripper edge.

Ledger paper. Strong, smooth bond paper used for keeping business records.

Legible.Characteristic of copy having sufficient contrast with the paper on which it appears and determined by such features as typeface, size, leading, and quality of printing.

Letterpress. Method of printing from raised surfaces. A letter press is the kind of press used.

Lettershop. Alternate term for Mailing service.

Light table.Translucent glass surface lit from below, used by production artists and strippers.

Light weight paper.Book grade paper of basis weight 40# or less with high opacity for its weight.

Line conversion screen.Piece of film containing line patterns that break light into those patterns as it passes through.

Line copy.Type, rules, clip art, and other images that are high contrast.

Line negative. High contrast negative usually made from line copy.

Linen tester.Alternate term for Graphic arts magnifier.

Lines per inch.The number of lines or rows of dots there are per inch in a screen and therefore in a screen tint, halftone, or separation.

Linotype. Mergenthaler trade name for machine that sets lines of metal type.

Liquid laminate.Plastic applied to paper as a liquid, then bonded and cured into a hard, glossy finish.

Lithography. Method of printing using a chemically-coated plate whose image areas attract ink and whose non-image areas repel ink.

Live area. Alternate term for Image area.

Logo. Assembly of type and art into a distinctive symbol unique to an organization, business, or product.

Long grain. Alternate term for Grain long (paper).

Loop stitch. To saddle stitch with staples that are also loops which slip over rings of binders.

Loose proof. Proof of one color separation.

Loupe. Alternate term for Graphic arts magnifier.

M.Roman numeral for 1,000.

Magenta. One of the four process colors; also known as process red.

Mailing service. Business specializing in addressing and mailing large quantities of printed pieces.

Makeready. All activities required to set up a press before production begins. Also refers to paper used in the process.

Making order.Order for custom-made paper.

Manila paper.Strong, buff-colored paper used to make envelopes and file folders.

Margin.Space forming border of a page or sheet.

Masking material. Opaque material, often film, used in pasteup to outline photographs or in plataking to withhold light from non-image areas.

Mask out.To cover selected copy or art so it will not appear on a negative or plate.

Master. Paper or plastic offset printing plate. Also, paper plate for spirit duplicating.

Matchprint. 3M trade name for integral color proof

Matte finish. Slightly dull finish on coated, lightly calendered paper.

Matte ink or varnish.Ink or varnish that appears dull when dry.

Mechanical. Camera-ready assbly of type, graphics, and other line copy complete with instructions to the printer.

Mechanical artist. Alternate term for Production artist.

Mechanical separation. Mechanical prepared using a separate overlay for each color to be printed.

Media conversion.Alternate term for Data conversion from one digital coding to another.

Medium format camera. Camera that makes 2 1/4 x 2 1/4 negatives.

Medium screen. Screen with ruling of 133 or 150 lines per inch.

Metallic ink.Ink containing powdered metal that sparkles in light.

Micrometer. Instrument used to measure thickness of paper.

Middle tones. Tones in a photograph or illustration about half as dark as its shadow areas and represented by dots between 30% and 70% of full size.

Mike. To measure the thickness of a sheet of paper using a micrometer.

Mill swatch. Paper sample book provided by a mill.

Mimeograph.Method of printing using a plastic stencil mounted on a rotating drum containing ink.

Mimeograph bond. Highly absorbent paper made for the mimeograph method of printing.

Mockup. Alternate term for Dummy.

Model release. Contract authorizing commercial use of a photograph that includes image of a recognizable person or private property.

Mod. Short for modulator/dodulator, a device that converts digital signals to analog tones and vice versa so that systs based on electronic mories can interface over telephone lines.

Moire.Undesirable pattern in halftones and screen tints made with improperly aligned screens.

Mottle.Spotty, uneven ink coverage especially noticeable in large solids.

Mounting board. Any thick, smooth piece of board paper used to paste up copy or mount photographs.

Multicolor printing. Printing done in more than one ink color.

Mylar. DuPont trade name for polyester film.

Negative. Characteristic of an image on film or paper in which blacks in the original subject are white or clear and whites in the original are black or opaque. Also, piece of film on which negative image appears.

Negative space.Alternate term for White space.

Non-image area.Portion of mechanical, negative, or plate that will not print.

Non-reproducing blue. Light blue color that does not record on graphic arts film, therefore may be used to write instructions on mechanicals.

Novelty printing. Printing on products such as pencils, balloons, and ashtrays.